What was the first USSR integrated circuit? It's a simple question, but it has a complex answer. For a start, it's not simply 'a copy of the first US integrated circuit'. The Soviet Union had substantial technological research capability, and was at least as advanced as the US in a number of ways, although this history has been obscured by military secrecy and by the usual re-writing of the story by the winner.

A search on the Web produces rather few, and rather confusing documents. A short one in English is the downloadable 'The Zelenograd Center of Microelectronics' by B. and D. Malashevich. This is primarily about the creation in 1963 of the Centre of Microelectronics in Zelenograd outside Moscow. It goes on to describe its production of a thin-film-hybrid radio receiver in 1963, and then in 1964 a series of thick-film-hybrid modules. The document describes these as the 'first series (of) IC in the USSR'. It confusingly also mentions 'the first in CM semiconductor IC' ... 'based on the planar technology' in 1965. After only mentioning these pioneering devices without specifying their part numbers, it ends with the cliché 'the rest is history'.

Another source in English is the US National Bureau of Standards books by Charles Marsden entitled 'TABULATION OF PUBLISHED DATA ON SOVIET ELECTRON DEVICES'. I have found several of these downloadable on the Web, dated from 1963 to 1976. The 1967 edition contains no integrated circuits, while the next edition dated 1970 lists over three hundred. Regrettably, these are not described in any detail.

I have not managed to find on the Web any contemporary Russian databooks that include the earliest types. So far I have only found 'A Handbook on Semiconductor Diodes, Transistors, and Integrated Circuits' (1977) edited by Goryunov, which has later types, all prefixed 'К' (see below).

Interestingly, Wikipedia has an article on 'Soviet integrated circuit designation' which lists several naming standards starting in 1968. The standards define fields in the name that specify the technology and functional group of the device in question: very useful and something the West never attempted; one advantage of central state control perhaps.

Finally, the best web site about old USSR semiconductors of all kinds is www.155la3.ru by Andrey Roubtsov. It shows a number of USSR ICs from the 1960s. The site is in Russian of course, but Web translators are available.

1MD5 hybrid IC

This 1МД5 (latin 1MD5) is from the series that the document about Zelenograd describes as the 'first series (of) IC in the USSR'. It is a thick-film hybrid integrated circuit in a 12-pin square package. The 1МД5 is shown on www.155la3.ru which displays its circuit of five transistors with common base bias and common emitter connection. I believe it was intended for use in logic gate circuits. The manufacturer is NII TT in Zelenograd, now Angstrem. The series was also made by Exiton in Pavlovsky Posad, Moscow.

www.155la3.ru has pages for 1МД1, 1МД2, 1МД3, 1МД4, 1МД5, 1МД6 and 1МД8. Some have suffixes. I don't know if the missing 1МД7 is just a type that he has not been able to collect (so far).

I don't have any original data book or sheet for the 1MDn types. If you know where I can find such data, please

IBM SLT hybrid IC

The types from this series were renumbered twice, as various Soviet naming standards were developed (see below). Firstly they became the 2ЛБ01n (latin 2LB01n) series. Marsden 1970 lists 2LB011 to 2LB017, and then about 29 higher-numbered 2LBnnn types. Then they were renumbered (again) as the so-called 201 series with part numbers 201ЛБn (latin 201LBn). Devices in both these series can be prefixed with a 'К', which indicates an integrated circuit for commercial and consumer applications (as opposed to military acceptance).

They use an unpainted packaging rather similar to the contemporary IBM SLT ('solid logic technology') hybrids shown here on a card from an unknown IBM device (probably a System/360 component).I am seeking examples of hybrids (not limited to 2ЛБ types) in this outline, if you know where I can find any, please

wanted IC

Angstrem made a second series of hybrids, the 1ММ (latin 1MM) series, in the same outline. www.155la3.ru has pages for 1ММ1, 1ММ2 and 1ММ3. They became 2НТ011 to 2НТ013 and then part of the 201 series. These are assemblies of four n-p-n transistors, differing in their current gain.

wanted IC

Angstrem made another series of hybrids, the 4МД (latin 4MD) series, this time in an unusual 14-wire DIL outline. Rather than pins, they have very thin wires about 1cm long.

2LI041 IC

As with the 1МДn series, these types were renumbered twice, ending as the 204 series:

These types were made by a number of manufacturers.

wanted IC

www.155la3.ru reveals that Angstrem made another series of hybrids, the 2МД (latin 2MD) series, which became the 203 series. These use a round outline and seem to be very rare.

The wikipedia article on naming standards implies that from 1968 to 1973 new devices were named according to standard NP0.034.000, for example the 2ЛБ01n series mentioned above. The structure of the name is:

For example, 2ЛБ012 is a military-grade hybrid IC, NAND gates or NOR gates, series 01, variant 2.

1IR865 monolithic IC

Turning to Marsden 1970, he lists about 150 monolithic types with part numbers starting with either '1' or 'К1'. Because of the naming standard, it's difficult to know which series was first. Some come in a small flatpack outline like this 1ИР865 (latin 1IR865). It seems to be impossible to find original data for this chip, but data for the renumbered version 186ИР5 shows it is a 90-bit (!) shift register. This one was made by Gamma in Zaporizhia, Ukraine.

1UT401B monolithic IC

There are also examples in a round metal can. This 1УТ401Б (latin 1UT401B) has a 12-pin can rather like TO-101. The functional group УТ contains DC amplifiers and the series 140 contains operational amplifiers that were very long-lived. My example was made by KNIIMP in Kiev, Ukraine.

K1LB552 monolithic IC Later ones use familiar plastic DIL packaging like this К1ЛБ552 (latin K1LB552) dated June 1976. It is a non-military-standard TTL 8-input NAND gate, similar to SN7430, made by Iskra in Ulyanovsk.

According to the wikipedia article a new naming standard came into force in 1973. Most USSR ICs developed after this date have a part number starting with three digits (again, possibly prefixed by 'K'). There are exceptions. These types don't really interest me.

That still leaves it unclear which was the first USSR monolithic IC. We might guess that the first to conform to the 1968 standard would be a logic circuit, and therefore might be 1ЛБ011. However Web searches reveal no such low-numbered types; the lowest-numbered 1ЛБ device in Marsden 1970 is the series 4 type 1ЛБ041 which is a DTL device. Marsden does list some RTL types, which might be presumed to be older, for example 1КП191 and 1ЛБ111.

However, www.155la3.ru contains a document called 'oldtimers'. It has three columns, titled from left to right 'new designation', 'old designation' and 'series'. The middle column contains the part numbers of many early USSR integrated circuits. Perhaps the most interesting is the first: ИП-1 (with multiple suffixes) which became 1КТ011 and is the only member of series 101. A little searching of www.155la3.ru reveals that this was in fact the first USSR monolithic IC (translated version here), made from 1965 onwards.

wanted IC

Obviously I would like to obtain examples of either ИП-1 or 1КТ011. If you can help, please